S-Adenosyl 225 SAMe for Dogs Review

S-Adenosyl 225 SAMe for Dogs Review

Manufacturer’s dog supplement description: “Sogeval S-Adenosyl-225 is an enteric-coated combination of SAMe, B-Complex Vitamins, Antioxidants and Amino Acids and is used to help manage liver disease and promote proper liver function in dogs and cats. The uniquely tablet coating allows it to stand up formidably to stomach acid and effectively deliver the S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) to the small intestine for proper absorption. Veterinarians recommend this product when giving other medications that may adversely affect the liver, such as Phenobarbital, anti-convulsants, NSAIDs, and cortisone.”

[tabs][tab title =”Overview”]S Adenosyl 225 is a nutritional supplement manufactured by Sogeval and is formulated to support liver’s metabolic activity and help maintain proper liver function in dogs. It combines S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine, a complex of Vitamin-B and Milk Thistle.[/tab]

[tab title =”How It Works”]S-Adenosyl is naturally produced by the liver, and is important for a number of different processes in the body. In cases of liver damage, the amount of SAMe produced naturally is decreased.[/tab]

[tab title=”Uses”]SAMe is important in decreasing further damage to dog’s already injured liver cells. It also stimulates regrowth of new liver cells, and helps to prevent damage to the liver in cases where another drug being given may cause liver damage if fed to a dog for a long period.

There is no definitive evidence that the product works (such as large scale clinical trials) but the results of several smaller trials, plus the known role of SAMe in the body strongly suggests that supplementing in cases where the dog does not produce enough SAMe itself (e.g. in liver failure) is beneficial.

Giving SAMe in cases of paracetamol overdose has also been shown to be effective.[/tab]

[tab title =”Side Effects”]No major side effects have been recorded for giving S-Adenosyl 225 or S-Adenosyl L-Methionine alone to dogs. Minor ones are also very rare, and are normally gastrointestinal in nature, such as nausea and vomiting.

If the dog is also being given antidepressants, then use of this supplement must be discussed with a vet.[/tab]

[tab title =”Dosage”]The product comes in tablet form, with the number of tablets to be given determined by the weight of the dog. If giving more than 1 tablet, divide daily dose between AM and PM. Tablets should be given on an empty stomach, at least one hour before meals.

Tablets are sensitive to moisture and heat and should not be split or crumbled. Store in temperature and humidity controlled environment.[/tab][/tabs]

S-Adenosyl 225 SAMe for Dogs

S-Adenosyl 225 SAMe for Dogs ReviewS-Adenosyl 225 (SAMe) for medium to large dogs is used to improve liver metabolic activity and restore proper liver function. Contains antioxidants to help neutralize oxygen free radicals, amino acids to stimulate glutathione synthesis and reduce oxidative damage, Bvitamins to provide nutritional support ensuring proper protein and energy metabolism, and vitamin B6 for synthesis of cysteine in the liver detoxification pathway.

Unique, entericcoated delivery system allows it to stand up formidably to stomach acid and effectively deliver the SAdenosylmethionine 1,4 butanedisulfonate (SAMe) to the small intestine for proper absorption. Both strengths contain SAMe and other important ingredients for proper liver support such as milk thistle to help protect liver cells from toxins and reduce damage to those cells caused by some prescription drug use.

Benefits of S-Adenosyl 225 for dogs

The major active ingredient of this dog supplement is S-Adenosyl L-Methionine, more commonly abbreviated as SAMe. You can sometimes find this ingredient listed elsewhere as S-Adenosyl L-Methionine 1.4-Butanedisulfonate, which refers to the stable formulation in which SAMe is prepared so it can be taken orally by dogs. The most popular option for canines is 225, which means the pills each contain 225mg of the active ingredient, with other forms of the supplement available in 100mg and 400mg (SAMe 100 and SAME 400) for smaller and larger dogs respectively.

While there isn’t any absolutely definite evidence in dogs yet (such as large scale trials), the known role of SAMe in the body, along with data from smaller trials, tends to indicate that there is a  benefit to using SAMe for those dogs that have some degree of liver failure.

In addition, SAMe has some positive effect outside the liver, such as heart function and joint function. Thus giving S Adenosyl to dogs that aren’t naturally producing enough SAMe themselves due to liver problems is likely to automatically have benefits to other systems as well as their liver.

Some other main active ingredients in S-Adenosyl 225, such as Milk Thistle and vitamin B complex, may also be useful for minimizing damage to cells if there is liver damage, and for supporting normal liver function in canines.

More on S-Adenosyl L-Methionine (SAMe)

S-Adenosyl L-Methionine occurs naturally in dogs as the result of a chemical reaction in the liver when the amino acid Methionine reacts with Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) to form SAMe and phosphate molecules. It is known to be an essential part of a number of different cellular processes, ranging from playing a role in liver cell growth and hepatocyte apoptosis to being protective against the negative effects of some drugs on liver cells.

SAMe also plays a central role in the switching on and off of genes via the methylation of DNA, and is part of the synthesis [1] of glutathione, an antioxidant that is important in preventing cell damage and plays a role in nutrient metabolism and the regulation of cellular events such as gene expression and DNA synthesis [2].

SAMe for preventing further damage after liver injury

Studies in humans and dogs, as well as in some other animals, have shown that methionine metabolism is adversely affected when a dog has a case of injured liver, and consequently less SAMe is synthesised by the liver, which predisposes the cells to further injury and degeneration [3].

The reason for supplementing your dog’s diet with S-Adenosyl is that it will disrupt the vicious cycle of depletion of methionine/SAMe with consequent cell damage. It will also boost the amount of natural SAMe present in the liver to increase glutathione levels and therefore help in minimizing the cellular damage caused by oxidative stress (a type of inflammatory response in the body that antioxidants are effective against).

SAMe for protection against damage caused by other drugs

Recent studies in people and mouse models also show that the presence of S-Adenosyl L-Methionine can be protective against hepatic dysfunction caused by other drugs, including steroids, certain anticonvulsants, and (rarely relevant in pets but useful in people) tricyclic antidepressants and alcohol. There are also some case studies to show that using SAMe dosing as a supportive therapy in the case of accidental paracetamol overdose in dogs can be successful in maintaining liver function and preventing liver failure [4].

So far, there has been only some definitive clinical evidence – and very little of it is in dogs – but small scale pet studies and studies in mice have both been promising. Given the strength of the theoretical and pre-clinical evidence, it’s reasonable to assume that using S-Adenosyl 225 for dogs will be beneficial for those with depressed liver function.

SAMe’s role in liver regrowth

SAMe’s role in regulating the growth of hepatocytes (particularly in regrowth after injury) [3] may help restore the liver to normal function after acute liver failure*. Continuing to use S-Adenosyl for chronic canine liver problems is likely to offset some of the issues that come about as a result of decreased levels of endogenous SAMe, including minimizing the progression of degeneration caused by long-term problems.

Supplementing with SAMe is also likely to be of benefit in cases where the dog is on long term treatment with drugs that themselves damage the liver [5] (e.g. the treatment of arthritis with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Rimadyl or Etogesic).

Other active ingredients in S-Adenosyl 225

The other active ingredients in S-Adenosyl 225 are also broadly hepato supportive, and play a role in maximizing healthy liver functions and minimizing liver damage in dogs. In brief, these are:

Milk Thistle. The active ingredient in the Milk Thistle plant, Silymarin, is both an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory. Milk Thistle extract is thought to have many similar effects to S-Adenosyl (including mitigating further damage to the liver in disease and acting in a protective fashion against other hepatotoxic drugs), and some studies have shown a benefit in a range of human liver conditions. However, other studies have shown no benefit, indicating that at present there is little definitive, large-scale evidence that Milk Thistle is effective in the treatment of liver disease.

N-Acetyl L-Cysteine. This amino acid acts as an antioxidant, and is a precursor to glutathione. Acetylcysteine is the treatment of choice in humans to prevent liver failure after paracetamol overdose, as not only will the acetylcysteine bind preferentially to the paracetamol metabolite that causes the damage, but also acts as a pool of glutathione precursor. The glutathione, in turn, acts to prevent damage to the liver cells.

L-Taurine. An amino acid that can be produced by the body. There is some limited evidence that taurine may be beneficial in slowing the progression of fatty liver disease, and may also be beneficial in mitigating the effects of acute viral hepatitis. There is no unequivocal evidence that taurine is clinically beneficial in liver disease.

Zinc Ascorbate. This is a Zinc salt of Vitamin C. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, and seems to have some beneficial effect in mitigating inflammation and slowing disease progression in fatty liver disease [6].

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6). Levels of the active metabolite vitamin B6 are lower in chronic liver disease. This is thought to be due to the metabolite being broken down more rapidly than by healthy liver cells [7]. The B6 metabolite (pyridoxal phosphate) is important in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, gene expression and the metabolism of some amino acids.

B-Complex vitamins. These are essential for the optimal functioning of the enzymes that make S-Adenosyl L-Methionine [8].

Vitamin E acetate (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate). This has an antioxidant effect in living cells and is often decreased in chronic liver disease [9].

Enteric coating. The enteric coating on the S-Adenosyl 225 tablets means that more of the active ingredients make it through the digestive system without being broken down, leaving a much greater percentage of the active ingredients unchanged after digestion than without the enteric coating [5].

* Acute liver failure generally comes on very quickly in response to something specific, e.g. ingestion of toxin or in response to infection.

 

References:

  1. Vendemiale G, et al. Effects of oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine on hepatic glutathione in patients with liver disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989 May;24(4):407-15. [link]
  2. Wu G, et al. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92. [link]
  3. Mato JM, et al. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in liver health and injury. Hepatology. 2007 May;45(5):1306-12. [link]
  4. Wallace KP, et al. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) for the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2002 May-Jun;38(3):246-54. [link]
  5. Friedel HA, et al. S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in liver dysfunction and affective disorders in relation to its physiological role in cell metabolism. Drugs. 1989 Sep;38(3):389-416. [link]
  6. Kawanaka M, Nishino K, Nakamura J, Suehiro M, Goto D, Urata N, Oka T, Kawamoto H, Nakamura H, Yodoi J, Hino K, Yamada G. Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with vitamins E and C: a pilot study. Hepat Med. 2013; 5: 11–16. doi: 10.2147/HMER.S41258
  7. Mitchell D, et al. Abnormal regulation of plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate in patients with liver disease. Gastroenterology. 1976 Dec;71(6):1043-9. [link]
  8. Doi T, et al. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on S-adenosylmethionine metabolism in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1989 Feb;35(1):1-9. [link]
  9. Sokol RJ, et al. Vitamin E deficiency in adults with chronic liver disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Jan;41(1):66-72. [pdf]

Disclaimer: The purported effects of the supplements or ingredients discussed in this article may, or may not, have been subject to rigorous scientific investigation.  This article is an introductory document for educational purposes only which is not intended to be a scientific review either endorsing or refuting the claimed effects of the supplements or ingredients. The information is NOT to be used for diagnosis or treatment of your pet. You should always consult your own veterinarian for specific advice concerning the treatment of your pet. The supplement has not been tested or tried by the author(s) of the content/review, and are not endorsed or recommended in any way.