Research shows that pancreatitis in dogs is one of the most common illnesses owners face.
Pancreatitis is a painful, potentially deadly inflammation and swelling of a dog’s pancreas.
A healthy pancreas produces insulin for a dog’s body, as well as unique enzymes that aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and proteins. These enzymes would be dangerous to the pancreas, but the organ has internal defenses that protect it.
Table of Contents
- 1 How Pancreatitis in Dogs Develops?
- 2 What Causes Canine Pancreatitis?
- 3 How to Recognize the Symptoms?
- 4 Treatments of Acute Pancreatitis
- 5 How to Prevent Pancreatitis in Dogs?
- 6 Take Home Message
These defenses start to collapse when the pancreas is inflamed and swollen, which can make it start to be broken down by its own enzymes.
The pancreas is very easily damaged and is also slow to heal .
Although rare, dogs that recover from acute pancreatitis may have recurrent bouts of this diseases and even develop chronic pancreatitis.
Naturally, you don’t want this to happen to your dog. Fortunately, studies haven shown that there are plenty of ways to diagnose and treat pancreatitis in dogs before it becomes a major health issue, and sometimes, prevention is also possible.
How Pancreatitis in Dogs Develops?
Acute pancreatitis in dogs comes on very quickly, but it is treatable .
Unfortunately, some dogs can suffer from recurrent bouts of pancreatic disease, and it will progressively get worse over time. This is known as chronic pancreatitis.
If the pancreas is severely inflamed, the enzymes that it produces can leak out into the abdomen and begin digesting other organs as well. This process will eventually damage the cells which produce these digestive enzymes.
Likewise, when many of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed, diabetes mellitus or “sugar diabetes” will occur and insulin therapy will be required.
What Causes Canine Pancreatitis?
Since canine pancreatitis has a lot of similarities to this condition in humans, multiple studies (but not majority) with people have been used to draw conclusions on pancreatitis in dogs .
Dietary factors are often the cause of canine pancreatitis .
Trauma, being neutered and previous surgeries may also increase a chance of pancreatitis [7, 8].
Even when your canine hasn’t been eating a high fat diet, it’s possible that pancreatic inflammation will occur just from eating a large amount of fatty foods at once. This is commonly observed around the holidays.
Interestingly, a sting from a scorpion can also cause an inflammation of a dog’s pancreas.
Some other causes of pancreatitis in dogs include:
- Certain medications, especially those containing potassium bromide
- Metabolic disorders
- Hormonal diseases, including: hypothyroidism, Cushings disease, and diabetes mellitus
- Trauma to the abdomen
Female dogs are more likely to develop pancreatitis than male dogs. Senior canines are also more likely to develop the disease than a younger dog.
A few dog breeds have been shown to be more prone to pancreatitis than others . Some are likely to develop acute pancreatitis while others are prone towards chronic pancreatitis.
Canine pancreatitis prone breeds are:
- Cocker Spaniel
- Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
- Miniature Schnauzer
- Shetland Sheepdog
- German Shepherd
- Yorkshire Terriers
Being aware if you’re dog is more likely to develop pancreatitis can mean an effective prevention, early diagnosis and easy recovery.
How to Recognize the Symptoms?
Mild symptoms can include abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, dehydration, depression, lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and a hunched posture.
If the disease has progressed, your dog may show more serious symptoms like heart arrhythmias, sepsis, and difficulty breathing.
How pancreatitis is diagnosed?
A vet may perform other tests or take x-rays and ultrasounds as well.
Although very rare, a biopsy can also be performed to provide a more conclusive result .
Sometimes, diagnosis of canine pancreatitis has to be presumptive. Dogs with pancreatitis, especially those with a chronic case, are not always easy to diagnose using regular tests .
Treatments of Acute Pancreatitis
Canine pancreatitis is treated by a vet. Dogs that are not treated for acute pancreatitis will suffer severe consequences, including potential death [8, 25].
The first step to treatment of pancreatitis in dogs is to control the dehydration and electrolyte imbalance associated with the disease by giving your dog plenty of fluids. Analgesics and intravenous fluids may be given to the dog, too.
Pain can be controlled through rest and dog pain medications, such as meperidine, butorphanol or products such as Deramaxx.
Depending on the severity of the case, antibiotics may also be introduced, which is the most common treatment for serious cases .
Other treatments through supplementation are also available (discussed below) .
Once the dog is more comfortable, your veterinarian will start to control nausea and vomiting, as well as any other negative effects of the disease. Medications work best for this, but for severe cases, withholding all the food, water and drugs for 24-48 hours may be needed.
Depending on the severity of the case and the situation, food may be introduced after about a day. Small meals of easily digestible food are recommended. Ideally, it has to be high-carb, low-fat foods.
In rare cases where there are severe complications, the dog may need surgery.
Some holistic vets may advise detoxification besides the 24-48 hour fasting to “cleanse the system.” Pet owners need to be aware that such methods have been shown to be ineffective against canine pancreatitis, and probably most other diseases .
Change of diet and lifestyle
After a dog goes through pancreatitis treatment, it’s important to implement permanent changes to his diet and lifestyle, if that was the cause of acute pancreatitis.
Generally, vets recommend that you eliminate most fats from your dog’s diet. Low fat, medium carbohydrate and medium protein diets are recommended.
However, there’s some evidence showing that higher fat diets (40% of calories) can help with treatment of pancreatitis in dogs, but further bigger scale study is needed .
Hydration is vital. Until the full recovery is reached, you should monitor that your pet stays hydrated after the therapy.
A vet will schedule another appointment soon afterwards to make sure that your pet is going through recovery well.
What to feed a recovering dog?
Changes to a diet are necessary for a dog recovering from pancreatitis .
Researchers have seen good response from dog foods with the above ratio. Dogs are also often supplemented with omega-3s, -6s and certain vitamins, such as vitamin E and digestive enzymes .
Digestibility is important. Overcooking your pet’s food can help with easy digestion. Starchy foods such as white rice or potatoes are a good choice.
Research shows that rice-based diets with soy hydrolysate works well .
If a dog starts to vomit, that means you need to stop feeding. Call your vet and update on the situation. Most likely, your pet will need to fast for another 24 hours.
Small meals are highly recommended. Feeding six to eight times a day with very small meals would be best at first. This has to do with not overworking your dog’s pancreas.
Gradually, you can start evening out the carb and protein ratio, as well as start to feed less times and more food per meal.
Chances of recovery
Success of the case depends on severity, initial diagnosis and therapy.
If the pancreatitis is mild and the dog has only had one episode, the chances of total recovery are very good.
Studies show if clinical remission is achieved through initial treatment, then prognosis is good for those dogs .
In other cases, pancreatitis may reoccur and get progressively worse .
Dogs that are experiencing pancreatitis for the first time with mild symptoms will likely do fine as long as the diet has been changed to low-fat foods. This will prevent any chance of recurrence of the issue.
Other canines may develop chronic pancreatitis, which eventually leads to pancreatic insufficiency and/or canine diabetes .
Treatment for chronic pancreatitis in dogs is also possible, but it is expensive and must be performed for the rest of the dog’s life. Such treatment involves the dog’s digestive enzymes being replaced with a replacement product, processed from the pancreases of cows and pigs.
Whether it is a mild or chronic case, a change in the dog’s diet is absolutely necessary.
How to Prevent Pancreatitis in Dogs?
There is no absolute preventative measure for acute pancreatitis in dogs .
However, a healthy lifestyle with plenty of exercise, feeding good dog food and doing it the right way, and keeping the dog hydrated is the best way to go about this.
Canine supplements that can potentially help with the disease are also available.
Avoid giving table scraps to your dog. Unless you know exactly what you’re doing, it’s better to stick to specially formulated dog food only.
Staying away from junk foods and all the medications that may cause pancreatitis is advisable.
If your Fido displays any symptoms of pain or persistent nausea, it is important to get him to the vet.
Diagnosed early, dog pancreatitis and its associated diseases are much easier to treat than late developments of the disease. Dogs who receive good treatment often achieve fast and full recoveries.
Ezyme supplements for dogs that have demonstrated the best results include:
- Panteric Granules
Supplements with pancreatin may help with ensuring that a dog’s pancrease doesn’t get overloaded. There is some evidence showing that pancreatin may work best on dogs with pancreatitis [44, 45, 46, 47].
As the research shows, pancreatic enzyme supplements for dogs are highly individualistic. Your dog may or may not respond to supplement treatment. If there’s no response, then another enzyme supplement may be used instead as long as there are no adverse effects.
Dog owners need to be aware that a rare complication in the form of oral ulceration and bleeding from supplementing with pancreatic enzymes can occur .
Studies show that ulceration and bleeding in dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are related to powdered enzyme supplements [48, 49].
However, this form is still recommended as it’s the most effective form of treatment. It’s best to decrease the amounts if complications are observed .
Fish oil supplements may also help dogs with acute pancreatitis.
Choosing dog food with added enzymes and a healthy balance of Omega-3s and -6s is a good idea, but adding additional fish oil supplements to a dog’s diet may increase the chance of faster recovery or prevention.
Antioxidants such as Vitamin E and Vitamin A have also shown positive signs in dogs with pancreatitis, but further research is required [30, 58, 65].
There’s some evidence that gut flora may have an impact on inflamation of the dog’s pancrease [11, 12, 13].
No adverse effects from using probiotics in canines with pancreatitis were observed.
Take Home Message
Acute pancreatitis in dogs is a common, painful diseases that may be fatal.
The usual causes of canine pancreatitis are poor diet, lack of exercise and sometimes medicine, trauma or surgery. Genetics can also play a role.
Treatment of pancreatitis in dogs will depend on the severity of the case. A visit to a vet is essential. 24 hour fasting followed by a special diet with plenty of hydration is necessary.
Although low-fat, high-carb diets are recommended for dogs recovering from pancreatitis, some studies with canines show positive results on mid- to high-fat diets.
Chances of recovery are usually very good, especially with early treatment. However, in certain cases dogs may get worse, and develop chronic pancreatitis.
Total prevention cannot be guaranteed, but dietary changes and dog supplements can help.
- Holroyd, J. B. (1968), Canine Exocrine Pancreatic Disease. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 9: 269–281. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.1968.tb04612.x
- Mansfield C1, Beths T. Management of acute pancreatitis in dogs: a critical appraisal with focus on feeding and analgesia. J Small Anim Pract. 2015 Jan;56(1):27-39. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12296.
- Westermarck E1, Wiberg M. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003 Sep;33(5):1165-79, viii-ix.
- Sunil Kumar Kota, S.V.S. Krishna, Sandeep Lakhtakia, Kirtikumar D. Modi. Metabolic pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis and management. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep-Oct; 17(5): 799–805. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.117208
- Stephanie E. Schleis, Scott A. Rizzo, Jeffery C. Phillips, Amy K. LeBlanc. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in a dog. Can Vet J. 2011 Sep; 52(9): 1009–1012.
- Dawn S Ruben,* Diana G Scorpio, Jonathan M Buscaglia. Refinement of Canine Pancreatitis Model: Inducing Pancreatitis by Using Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography. Comp Med. 2009 Feb; 59(1): 78–82. Published online 2009 Feb.
- Lem KY1, Fosgate GT, Norby B, Steiner JM. Associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Nov 1;233(9):1425-31. doi: 10.2460/javma.233.9.1425.
- Hess RS1, Kass PH, Shofer FS, Van Winkle TJ, Washabau RJ. Evaluation of risk factors for fatal acute pancreatitis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999 Jan 1;214(1):46-51.
- Cook AK1, Breitschwerdt EB, Levine JF, Bunch SE, Linn LO. Risk factors associated with acute pancreatitis in dogs: 101 cases (1985-1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993 Sep 1;203(5):673-9.
- Hess RS1, Saunders HM, Van Winkle TJ, Shofer FS, Washabau RJ. Clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in dogs with fatal acute pancreatitis: 70 cases (1986-1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998 Sep 1;213(5):665-70.
- Mansfield C1. Pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis: potential application from experimental models and human medicine to dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2012 Jul-Aug;26(4):875-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00949.x. Epub 2012 Jun 7.
- Raffaele Pezzilli. Chronic pancreatitis: Maldigestion, intestinal ecology and intestinal inflammation. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Apr 14; 15(14): 1673–1676. Published online 2009 Apr 14. doi: 10.3748/wjg.15.1673
- Hegazi RA1, O’Keefe SJ. Nutritional immunomodulation of acute pancreatitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007 Apr;9(2):99-106.
- Mansfield CS1, Jones BR, Spillman T. Assessing the severity of canine pancreatitis. Res Vet Sci. 2003 Apr;74(2):137-44.
- Steiner JM1. Diagnosis of pancreatitis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003 Sep;33(5):1181-95.
- Steiner JM1, Williams DA. Feline exocrine pancreatic disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1999 Mar;29(2):551-75.
- Hyun-wook Kim, Ye-in Oh, Ji-hye Choi, Dae-yong Kim, Hwa-young Youn. Use of laparoscopy for diagnosing experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in dogs. J Vet Sci. 2014 Dec; 15(4): 551–556. Published online 2014 Dec 15. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2014.15.4.551
- Kiriyama S1, Gabata T, Takada T, Hirata K, Yoshida M, Mayumi T, Hirota M, Kadoya M, Yamanouchi E, Hattori T, Takeda K, Kimura Y, Amano H, Wada K, Sekimoto M, Arata S, Yokoe M, Hirota M. New diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2010 Jan;17(1):24-36. doi: 10.1007/s00534-009-0214-3. Epub 2009 Dec 11.
- W R Matull, S P Pereira, J W O’Donohue. Biochemical markers of acute pancreatitis. J Clin Pathol. 2006 Apr; 59(4): 340–344. doi: 10.1136/jcp.2002.002923
- Thrall DE. Saunders, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. 803 pp. ISBN-9781-4160-2615-0. Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology. 5th edition. Can Vet J. 2012 Oct; 53(10): 1099.
- Williams DA1, Batt RM. Sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay of serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity for the diagnosis of canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1988 Jan 15;192(2):195-201.
- Heidi S. Allen, Jörg Steiner, John Broussard, Caroline Mansfield, David A. Williams, Boyd Jones. Serum and urine concentrations of trypsinogen-activation peptide as markers for acute pancreatitis in cats. Can J Vet Res. 2006 Oct; 70(4): 313–316.
- Treacy J1, Williams A, Bais R, Willson K, Worthley C, Reece J, Bessell J, Thomas D. Evaluation of amylase and lipase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. ANZ J Surg. 2001 Oct;71(10):577-82.
- Ruaux CG1. Diagnostic approaches to acute pancreatitis. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2003 Nov;18(4):245-9.
- Kuzi S1, Segev G, Haruvi E, Aroch I. Plasma antithrombin activity as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator in dogs: a retrospective study of 149 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2010 May-Jun;24(3):587-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0497.x. Epub 2010 Apr 2.
- Westermarck E1, Wiberg M. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the dog: historical background, diagnosis, and treatment. Top Companion Anim Med. 2012 Aug;27(3):96-103. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2012.05.002. Epub 2012 Jun 23.
- Hall, E. J., Bond, P. M., McLean, C., Batt, R. M. and McLean, L. (1991), A survey of the diagnosis and treatment of canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 32: 613–619. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.1991.tb00903.x
- Deng Q1, Wu C, Li Z, Xiong D, Liang Y, Lu L, Sun X. [The prevention of infection complicating acute necrotizing pancreatitis:an experimental study]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2000 Aug;38(8):625-9.
- Vincent C. Biourge, Jacques Fontaine. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Adverse Reaction to Food in Dogs: A Positive Response to a High-Fat, Soy Isolate Hydrolysate–Based Diet. J. Nutr. August 1, 2004 vol. 134 no. 8 2166S-2168S
- Alice K.Y. Chan. Intermittent pancreatitis in a 2-year-old Chihuahua mixed breed dog. Can Vet J. 2006 May; 47(5): 475–478.
- Xenoulis PG1, Steiner JM. Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs. Vet J. 2010 Jan;183(1):12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.10.011. Epub 2009 Jan 23.
- Batchelor DJ1, Noble PJ, Taylor RH, Cripps PJ, German AJ. Prognostic factors in canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: prolonged survival is likely if clinical remission is achieved. J Vet Intern Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;21(1):54-60.
- Wiberg ME1, Westermarck E. Subclinical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Apr 15;220(8):1183-7.
- Rhea V. Morgan. Handbook of Small Animal Practice (Fifth Edition). ISBN: 978-1-4160-3949-5
- Swetha Kambhampati, Walter Park, Aida Habtezion. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Dec 7; 20(45): 16868–16880. Published online 2014 Dec 7. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.16868
- Jong-Min Park, Sooyeon Lee, Mi Kyung Chung, Sung-Hun Kwon, Eun-Hee Kim, Kwang Hyun Ko, Chang Il Kwon, Ki Baik Hahm. Antioxidative phytoceuticals to ameliorate pancreatitis in animal models: An answer from nature. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 28; 20(44): 16570–16581. Published online 2014 Nov 28. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i44.16570
- Aran Mas, Peter-John M Noble, Peter J Cripps, Daniel J Batchelor, Peter Graham, Alexander J German. A blinded randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of enteric coating on enzyme treatment for canine exocrine pancreatic efficiency. BMC Vet Res. 2012; 8: 127. Published online 2012 Jul 28. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-127
- Devi Mukkai Krishnamurty, Atoosa Rabiee, Sanjay B Jagannath, Dana K Andersen. Delayed release pancrelipase for treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency associated with chronic pancreatitis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2009; 5: 507–520. Published online 2009 Jul 12.
- Wiberg ME1, Lautala HM, Westermarck E. Response to long-term enzyme replacement treatment in dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998 Jul 1;213(1):86-90.
- B B Giulian, H Mitsuoka, A O Mansfield, J E Trapnell, J A Seddon, M Howard. Treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. II. Effects on fat absorption of pancreatic lipase and fifteen commercial pancreatic supplements as measured by I-131 tagged triolein in the dog. Ann Surg. 1967 Apr; 165(4): 571–579.
- Joachim Mössner, Prof. Dr. Volker Keim, Prof. Dr. Pancreatic Enzyme Therapy. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011 Aug; 108(34-35): 578–582. Published online 2011 Aug 29. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2011.0578
- Inui A1, Okita M, Inoue T, Sakatani N, Oya M, Morioka H, Oimomi M, Tatemoto K, Baba S. Effects of pancreastatin on insulin and pancreatic polypeptide secretion in the dog. Endocrinol Jpn. 1989 Oct;36(5):733-8.
- Mas A1, Noble PJ, Cripps PJ, Batchelor DJ, Graham P, German AJ. A blinded randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of enteric coating on enzyme treatment for canine exocrine pancreatic efficiency. BMC Vet Res. 2012 Jul 28;8:127. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-127.
- Halm U1, Löser C, Löhr M, Katschinski M, Mössner J. A double-blind, randomized, multicentre, crossover study to prove equivalence of pancreatin minimicrospheres versus microspheres in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Jul;13(7):951-7.
- Kim JW1, Jung DI, Kang BT, Kim HJ, Park C, Park EH, Lim CY, Park HM. Canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency treated with porcine pancreatic extract. J Vet Sci. 2005 Sep;6(3):263-6.
- Griffin SM1, Alderson D, Farndon JR. Acid resistant lipase as replacement therapy in chronic pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: a study in dogs. Gut. 1989 Jul;30(7):1012-5.
- Aaron Fieker, Jessica Philpott, Martine Armand. Enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic insufficiency: present and future. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2011; 4: 55–73. Published online 2011 May 4. doi: 10.2147/CEG.S17634
- Elisabeth Snead. Oral ulceration and bleeding associated with pancreatic enzyme supplementation in a German shepherd with pancreatic acinar atrophy. Can Vet J. 2006 Jun; 47(6): 579–582.
- Rutz GM1, Steiner JM, Williams DA. Oral bleeding associated with pancreatic enzyme supplementation in three dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Dec 15;221(12):1716-8, 1714.
- Adrián González-Alonso, César L. Ramírez-Tortosa, Alfonso Varela-López, Enrique Roche, María I. Arribas, M. Carmen Ramírez-Tortosa, Francesca Giampieri, Julio J. Ochoa, José L. Quiles. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Oct; 16(10): 23425–23445. Published online 2015 Sep 29. doi: 10.3390/ijms161023425
- Park KS1, Lim JW, Kim H. Inhibitory mechanism of omega-3 fatty acids in pancreatic inflammation and apoptosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1171:421-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04887.x.
- Brown TT1, Zelnik DL, Dobs AS. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients. Int J Gastrointest Cancer. 2003;34(2-3):143-50.
- Stig Bengmark. Nutrition of the critically ill – emphasis on liver and pancreas. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2012 Dec; 1(1): 25–52. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2304-3881.2012.10.14
- Wang X1, Li W, Li N, Li J. Omega-3 fatty acids-supplemented parenteral nutrition decreases hyperinflammatory response and attenuates systemic disease sequelae in severe acute pancreatitis: a randomized and controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 May-Jun;32(3):236-41. doi: 10.1177/0148607108316189.
- Nabavi SF1, Bilotto S2, Russo GL3, Orhan IE4, Habtemariam S5, Daglia M6, Devi KP7, Loizzo MR8, Tundis R8, Nabavi SM1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer: lessons learned from clinical trials. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2015 Sep;34(3):359-80. doi: 10.1007/s10555-015-9572-2.
- Lenox CE1, Bauer JE. Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):217-26. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12033. Epub 2013 Jan 16.
- Bernhard Rauch, Jochen Senges. The Effects of Supplementation with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cardiac Rhythm: Anti-Arrhythmic, Pro-Arrhythmic, Both or Neither? It Depends. Front Physiol. 2012; 3: 57. Published online 2012 Apr 2. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00057
- Vlasov AP, Trofimov VA, Misharin IV, Vlasova VP, Tsilikina OV, Keleĭnikov AB, Atamankin IV. [Effect of antioxidants on the course of experimental pancreatitis]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2007 May-Jun;70(3):25-8.
- Mukaddes Esrefoglu. Experimental and clinical evidence of antioxidant therapy in acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct 21; 18(39): 5533–5541. Published online 2012 Oct 21. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i39.5533
- Filipenko PS, Saliĭ IS, Potapov GV. [Effects of ionol and alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation in the liver of dogs with acute pancreatitis]. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 2008 Jul-Sep;(3):29-31.
- Batt RM1, Horadagoda NU. Gastric and pancreatic intrinsic factor-mediated absorption of cobalamin in the dog. Am J Physiol. 1989 Sep;257(3 Pt 1):G344-9.
- Batt RM1, Horadagoda NU, McLean L, Morton DB, Simpson KW. Identification and characterization of a pancreatic intrinsic factor in the dog. Am J Physiol. 1989 Mar;256(3 Pt 1):G517-23.
- Simpson KW1, Morton DB, Batt RM. Effect of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency on cobalamin absorption in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1989 Aug;50(8):1233-6.
- Vaillant C1, Horadagoda NU, Batt RM. Cellular localization of intrinsic factor in pancreas and stomach of the dog. Cell Tissue Res. 1990 Apr;260(1):117-22.
- Adamama-Moraitou KK1, Rallis TS, Prassinos NN, Papasteriadis A, Roubies N. Serum vitamin A concentration in dogs with experimentally induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002 May;72(3):177-82.
- Mohamed Rhouma, Alexander de Oliveira El Warrak, Eric Troncy, Francis Beaudry, Younès Chorfi. Anti-inflammatory response of dietary vitamin E and its effects on pain and joint structures during early stages of surgically induced osteoarthritis in dogs. Can J Vet Res. 2013 Jul; 77(3): 191–198.
- Naoki Oishi, M.D. Andra E. Talaska, B.S., Jochen Schacht, Ph.D. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 Nov 1. Published in final edited form as: Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2012 Nov; 42(6): 1259–1271. Published online 2012 Oct 10. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2012.08.005
- Wilson LS1, Rosenkrantz WS, Roycroft LM. Zinc-carnosine and vitamin E supplementation does not ameliorate gastrointestinal side effects associated with ciclosporin therapy of canine atopic dermatitis. Vet Dermatol. 2011 Feb;22(1):53-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2010.00910.x.
- Carlijn R. Hooijmans, Rob B. M. de Vries, Maroeska M. Rovers, Hein G. Gooszen, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga. The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48811. Published online 2012 Nov 13. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048811