Owners have been trying for years to find the best flea and tick prevention for dogs and cats.
Unsurprisingly, an abundance of studies have shown how fleas and ticks on dogs are vectors for a multitude of dangerous diseases.
All experts agree that a healthy wellness program will undoubtedly include some flea and tick prevention for dogs as one of the first priorities.
Data discussed below has demonstrated that modern methods of flea and tick prevention for dogs are very effective when used correctly.
Table of Contents
- 1 What Are Fleas and Ticks?
- 2 Why is Flea and Tick Prevention for Dogs Important?
- 3 Life Cycles of Fleas and Ticks
- 4 What is the Best Approach to Parasite Control?
- 5 Types of Prevention Products
- 6 What’s the Best Flea and Tick Prevention for Dogs?
- 7 My Dog Has Fleas and Ticks still. Did the Product Fail?
- 8 Take Home Message
However, because there are so many dog flea treatment products to choose from, the decision can be overwhelming.
It’s important to understand the difference in the way tick and flea preventatives work and the limitations some pose in order to pick the best tick and flea medicine for your pet.
Distinguishing between false claims and proven methods, and learning about the life cycle of fleas and ticks are the first steps in making an informed selection on the best flea treatment for dogs.
There has been a lot of research and clinical trials related to tick prevention and flea treatment for dogs and cats. In this article, we’ve collected and analyzed the data to find the best flea and tick solutions that have been proven to work.
What Are Fleas and Ticks?
Ticks and fleas are not exclusive to pets, and will also bite humans and other warm-blooded animals.
Difference between fleas and ticks
Fleas and ticks are two different types of parasites. Aside from diseases they transport, the biggest difference is that fleas usually stay with one host while ticks like to consistently move from one source of blood to another.
Regardless of the disparity between these two parasites, it’s imperative to prevent your dog from being bitten by either one.
If no preventative measures have been taken and the bite does occur, it has to be taken seriously. There’s a number of effective dog flea and tick treatments available (discussed below) that should be applied immediately.
Most fleas prefer to establish themselves on pet’s head or neck, and very few take a liking to other parts of the body .
Interestingly, studies show that dogs can often serve as guardians for humans against certain types of illnesses carried by fleas, such as Bartonella bacteria .
Dogs at multi-pet households where owners also have cats are at a higher risk since felines are more likely to catch fleas and can quickly transfer those onto dogs and, less likely, humans .
Ticks are more difficult to study and research than fleas, which is why there’s a much smaller body of research available on all types of ticks.
The biology of ticks is far more complex when compared to fleas, mostly because there are nine varieties of ticks and only one type of common fleas .
Why is Flea and Tick Prevention for Dogs Important?
There are many reasons why flea and tick prevention for dogs (and cats, if you have any) should be taken extremely seriously.
Aside from the dangerous diseases mentioned in the studies above, owners must remember that since fleas feed on the pet’s blood, heavy infestations can cause anemia or low levels of red blood cells, especially in puppies.
Flea bites can cause intense itching, leading to secondary bacterial skin infections, hair loss and discomfort .
Diseases such as Cat Scratch Fever (Bartonella) and the Plaque (Yersenia) can be transmitted by fleas .
Fleas may also become intermediate hosts and cause of tapeworms in dogs. Although some studies tried to dispute this , further research have found a definite correlation between tapeworms and fleas in dogs and cats [32, 33, 34].
Ticks are vectors for such diseases as Lyme Disease, Ehrlichia, and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, just to name a few, which can be difficult to diagnose and serious if left untreated [3-6, 13-17, 23-27].
Humans can be susceptible to tick borne diseases as well [10-12].
Life Cycles of Fleas and Ticks
It is imperative to understand how these parasites reproduce in order to effectively control them.
Adult fleas live their entire lives on the dog, and has a lifespan of about 100 days.
The female can lay up to 50 eggs per day after feeding a blood meal. The eggs fall off the dog and live in the environment until they hatch in 2 to 10 days.
There are three larval stages. In ideal conditions such as carpets and bedding, the larvae can pupate in a little over a week. The larvae spins a cocoon and the pre-emergent adult can stay inside for 5 days and up to 6 months.
When it senses the presence of the dog, the fleas emerge and begin the cycle over again.
The adult flea may only be 5% of the total population. Therefore, controlling only the adults, for example with dog flea shampoos, will undoubtedly fail as a long term flea control method.
On the other hand, ticks have four distinct life stages: eggs, larvae, nymph and adult. All stages except the egg require a blood for development. The female tick can lay up to 18,000 eggs in her lifetime and thus is a very prolific parasite.
Most ticks require more than one host to replicate, meaning they live on more than one mammal.
Unlike the flea, the adult tick can spend most of its time off the dog and in the environment. This has important consequences for prevention, making environmental control paramount.
Another difference between fleas and ticks is that ticks can take one to three years to mature.
What is the Best Approach to Parasite Control?
An integrated approach to parasite control will provide the best results [35, 36, 37]. This means treating the adult fleas on the dog and all other pets in the house, as well as the immature life stages of the flea.
Many dog owners still avoid preventative measures and sometimes even treatments for their pets, which is a mistake since flea and tick control should be one of the first priorities for new pet owners.
Certain brands of flea and tick prevention products (discussed below) are better than others, and higher dosage has been shown to be definitely more effective .
Environmental control is critical when dealing with ticks and fleas, especially in heavily infested conditions .
Carpets and bedding must be properly treated, and mulch and fallen leaves should be cleared from the yard. Insecticides such as permethrins may be considered as well. A professional exterminator service could become necessary in heavy infestations.
Types of Prevention Products
Since flea and tick bites on dogs and cats is one of the most common causes for spreading diseases, more companies are investing into R&D to find the best flea and tick prevention for dogs and cats, be it collars, medicine, shampoos, topical products or anything else.
The general consensus on these dog flea and tick solutions is that they are very effective, and this has been supported by a growing body of research.
Topical products against fleas and ticks
These products are generally applied once a month and act as insecticides for dogs, therefore killing adult fleas.
Some topically applied products are actually medications that are absorbed through the skin to work systemically. These are all prescription only products.
Other topical products are dog insecticides dosed to an amount safe to be applied on the pet. Many of these are over the counter.
The active ingredients normally include permethrin (very toxic to cats), fipronil, selamectin, imidacloprid, pyriproxyfen and metaflumizone.
Popular name brands that control fleas and ticks include:
- Frontline Plus
- K9 Advantix
- Vectra 3D
Some of the ingredients in the above brands have been shown to be extremely toxic to cats but not dogs, so carefully reading the label is important.
Tick and flea shampoo for dogs
Dog flea and tick shampoos typically work by killing any parasite already on the pet, although there may be some residual activity, meaning it may prevent some re-infestation.
Research has shown clear evidence that dog flea shampoo can help in the fight against these parasites .
Many of these products are toxic to cats and should be used with caution in small dogs.
Using tick and flea shampoos for dogs is not an effective means of parasite control and most veterinarians will not recommend this as a sole treatment .
Tick and flea collars for dogs
Flea and tick collars for dogs generally contain permethrins, organophosphates or some other repellent.
The evidence on these products varies. Some brands, when tested with cats, have shown to fail to completely control fleas. It’s presumed that the issue is due to lack of control of other life stages of the flea thus allowing re-infestation [33, 36].
Other studies with canines have demonstrated that using flea and tick collars for dogs can be an effective method to fight and prevent fleas as well as a number of diseases these parasites transmit [48, 49, 50].
A few of the studies were funded by the manufacturer, thus certain biases are possible but do not necessarily discredit the outcome.
Furthermore, some studies have found dog tick and flea collars to be effective in fighting tapeworms that were caused by fleas in pets .
Popular name brands of tick and flea collars include:
The above tick collars with Deltamethrin or Amitraz are often a nice adjunct to oral or topical tick medications for dogs that are exposed to heavily tick infested areas.
These products can be toxic to cats if swallowed. There are some drug interactions associated with Amitraz use and consulting with a veterinarian before using a flea or tick collar is a good idea, especially for pet owners in multi-pet households.
Tick and flea medicine for dogs
Some flea medicine brands are adulticides, like Capstar (Nitenpyram) or Comfortis (Spinosad), which will kill fleas very quickly in most cases according to several clinical trials.
Capstar is a one time kill and will not prevent re-infestation. Comfortis can be used monthly to prevent fleas and has been shown to help control ticks as well.
Others, such as Bravecto (Fluralaner) will prevent fleas and ticks in dogs with one oral pill every three months. Program (Lufenuron) is another oral flea preventative that inhibits the hatching of flea eggs, but won’t kill adults.
Popular name brands of flea and tick medicine:
There have been suggestions to use brewer’s yeast and/or garlic to prevent and repel fleas in dogs as “alternative medicine” method. A study has demonstrated this to be completely ineffective .
Side Effects of Dog Flea and Tick Prevention Products
Many pet owners will be concerned about the side effects and safety of flea and tick prevention products mentioned above.
Some online resources have suggested that certain flea and tick treatments for dogs may cause clinical illnesses among pets.
However, the ever changing environment of manufacturing medicine should keep owners on their toes and careful about the products they administer to their pets. Consulting with a vet beforehand is highly advisable.
One study has shown that commercial flea and tick products may indeed cause short-term depression in animals which goes away after the treatment has been stopped .
Another one has shown very rare and minor side effects of vomiting and nausea from plant-derived flea preventatives .
What’s the Best Flea and Tick Prevention for Dogs?
This is a difficult question to answer because all pets have different needs. In addition, different areas of the nation have different parasite loads depending on the climate.
Finding the best flea and tick prevention for dogs or cats will depend on many different variables, but the above list of studies can help owners to come to a more definite conclusion.
In general, science points to the fact that prescription products are going to work best .
If ticks are a concern, then using a product with efficacy against both ticks and fleas, for example Bravecto or Revolution, will be important.
When medicating your dog orally is tricky for a pet owner, then a topical product like Revolution might be the best solution. If you are prone to forgetting monthly doses, a more long acting drug such as Bravecto will be a better option.
Pairing several tick and flea prevention products that have been proven to work to some extent may not be a bad idea, as long as you discuss this with a veterinarian beforehand.
My Dog Has Fleas and Ticks still. Did the Product Fail?
In many cases, the product didn’t fail even if you see a flea or tick on your dog. Products aimed at controlling ticks do not work as quickly as many of the flea products do.
It may take up to 24 hours for the tick to die and fall off the dog. Without the product your pet would have had undoubtedly even more ticks. Manual removal of many will still be necessary.
If a flea is seen, this often means that a more integrated approach to prevention is necessary. Focusing on riding the environment may be the key to a more successful flea treatment outcome.
There has been some discussion about dogs developing resistance to commercial flea and tick treatments . However, vets and scientists argue that resistance to these chemicals among dogs is very unlikely.
When such cases of “resistance” occur, it’s important to first rule out all common causes of insecticide’s lack of efficacy in dogs before concluding that the animal has indeed developed resistance to pesticide treatments.
Further research shows that resistance is either rare or doesn’t exist at all . The primary cause, as concluded by several studies, is most likely due to treatment deficiency.
Changing the brand, upping the dosage and/or continuing the treatment for a longer period of time after discussing this with a vet will most likely produce the desired results.
Take Home Message
Fleas and ticks are dangerous to dogs, cats and their humans. They carry a variety of diseases, some of which can be deadly.
Safe flea treatments for dogs are available and easily accessible. Most commercial products of flea and tick prevention for dogs have been shown as very effective with rare, minor or no side effects at all.
Finding the best flea and tick prevention for dogs will depend on several variables, such as the environment and pets themselves.
Trying a combination of treatments can produce the best results, but remember to discuss this with a veterinarian beforehand.
- Bond R, Riddle A, Mottram L, Beugnet F, Stevenson R. Survey of flea infestation in dogs and cats in the United Kingdom during 2005. Vet Rec. 2007 Apr 14;160(15):503-6
- Farkas R, Gyurkovszky M, Solymosi N, Beugnet F. Prevalence of flea infestation in dogs and cats in Hungary combined with a survey of owner awareness. Med Vet Entomol. 2009 Sep;23(3):187-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2009.00798.x
- Bruno B. Chomel,corresponding author, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Soichi Maruyama, Edward B. Breitschwerdt. Bartonella Spp. in Pets and Effect on Human Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Mar; 12(3): 389–394. doi: 10.3201/eid1203.050931
- Wilkerson MJ, Bagladi-Swanson M, Wheeler DW, Floyd-Hawkins K, Craig C, Lee KW, Dryden M. The immunopathogenesis of flea allergy dermatitis in dogs, an experimental study. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004 Jun;99(3-4):179-92.
- Harman DW, Halliwell RE, Greiner EC. Flea species from dogs and cats in north-central Florida. Vet Parasitol. 1987 Jan;23(1-2):135-40.
- Gross TL, Halliwell RE. Lesions of experimental flea bite hypersensitivity in the dog. Vet Pathol. 1985 Jan;22(1):78-81.
- Elston DM. Life-threatening stings, bites, infestations, and parasitic diseases. Clin Dermatol. 2005 Mar-Apr;23(2):164-70.
- Salkeld DJ, Stapp P. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis). J Parasitol. 2008 Jun;94(3):616-21. doi: 10.1645/GE-1368.1.
- Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Soheil Ebrahimpour, Mojtaba Rezaei, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Arash Rakhshanpour, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi. Dermatitis caused by Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) in human. Caspian J Intern Med. 2014 Autumn; 5(4): 248–250.
- Elston DM. Tick bites and skin rashes. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010 Apr;23(2):132-8. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e328335b09b.
- Muthupalaniappen Leelavathi, Moktar Norhayati, Yin Yin Lee. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report. Korean J Parasitol. 2012 Mar; 50(1): 79–82. Published online 2012 Mar 6. doi: 10.3347/kjp.2012.50.1.79
- Günther G, Haglund M. Tick-borne encephalopathies : epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(12):1009-32.
- Lawrence AL, Hii SF, Jirsová D, Panáková L, Ionică AM, Gilchrist K, Modrý D, Mihalca AD, Webb CE, Traub RJ, Šlapeta J. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2015 Jun 15;210(3-4):215-23. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.03.029.
- Koutinas AF, Papazahariadou MG, Rallis TS, Tzivara NH, Himonas CA. Flea species from dogs and cats in northern Greece: environmental and clinical implications. Vet Parasitol. 1995 May;58(1-2):109-15.
- Tripp DW, Gage KL, Montenieri JA, Antolin MF. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Jun;9(3):313-21. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2008.0194.
- Rizzo MF, Billeter SA, Osikowicz L, Luna-Caipo DV, Cáceres AG, Kosoy M. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru. J Med Entomol. 2015 Nov;52(6):1374-7. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjv137
- Krasnov BR, Khokhlova IS, Shenbrot GI. Sampling fleas: the reliability of host infestation data. Med Vet Entomol. 2004 Sep;18(3):232-40.
- Hsu MH, Hsu TC, Wu WJ. Distribution of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) on the cat. J Med Entomol. 2002 Jul;39(4):685-8.
- Ishida C, Tsuneoka H, Iino H, Murakami K, Inokuma H, Ohnishi T, Tsukahara M. [Bartonella henselae infection in domestic cat and dog fleas]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2001 Feb;75(2):133-6.
- Pat-Nah H, Rodriguez-Vivas RI, Bolio-Gonzalez ME, Villegas-Perez SL, Reyes-Novelo E. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico. J Med Entomol. 2015 Jan;52(1):101-4. doi: 10.1093/jme/tju010.
- Szabó MP, Cunha TM, Pinter A, Vicentini F. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with domestic dogs in Franca region, São Paulo, Brazil. Exp Appl Acarol. 2001;25(10-11):909-16.
- Labruna MB, Homem VS, Heinemann MB, Ferreira Neto JS. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with rural dogs in Uruará, eastern Amazon, Brazil. J Med Entomol. 2000 Sep;37(5):774-6.
- Spolidorio MG, Minervino AH, Valadas SY, Soares HS, Neves KA, Labruna MB, Ribeiro MF, Gennari SM. Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2013 Apr-Jun;22(2):214-9. doi: 10.1590/S1984-29612013005000023.
- Atwell RB, Campbell FE, Evans EA. Prospective survey of tick paralysis in dogs. Aust Vet J. 2001 Jun;79(6):412-8.
- Torina A, Caracappa S. Dog tick-borne diseases in Sicily. Parassitologia. 2006 Jun;48(1-2):145-7.
- Hamer SA, Tsao JI, Walker ED, Mansfield LS, Foster ES, Hickling GJ. Use of tick surveys and serosurveys to evaluate pet dogs as a sentinel species for emerging Lyme disease. Am J Vet Res. 2009 Jan;70(1):49-56. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.70.1.49.
- Savić S, Vidić B, Lazić S, Lako B, Potkonjak A, Lepsanović Z. Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and dogs in the province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Parasite. 2010 Dec;17(4):357-61.
- Blagburn BL, Dryden MW. Biology, treatment, and control of flea and tick infestations. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009 Nov;39(6):1173-200, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2009.07.001.
- Yore K, DiGangi B, Brewer M, Balakrishnan N, Breitschwerdt EB, Lappin M. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates. Vet Parasitol. 2014 Jan 31;199(3-4):225-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.10.017. Epub 2013 Oct 30.
- Bersissa Kumsa, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, and Cristina Socolovschi. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in Dog and Cat Fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Mar 5; 90(3): 457–462. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0010
- Guzman RF. A survey of cats and dogs for fleas: with particular reference to their role as intermediate hosts of Dipylidium caninum. N Z Vet J. 1984 May;32(5):71-3.
- Georgi JR. Tapeworms. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1987 Nov;17(6):1285-305.
- Gerhard Dobler, Martin Pfeffer. Fleas as parasites of the family Canidae. Parasit Vectors. 2011; 4: 139. Published online 2011 Jul 18. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-139
- Rust MK, Dryden MW. The biology, ecology, and management of the cat flea. Annu Rev Entomol. 1997;42:451-73.
- Willadsen P. Tick control: thoughts on a research agenda. Vet Parasitol. 2006 May 31;138(1-2):161-8. Epub 2006 Feb 23.
- Dryden MW. Flea and tick control in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities. Vet Dermatol. 2009 Oct;20(5-6):435-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2009.00838.x.
- Didier N. Carlotti, Dennis E. Jacobs. Therapy, control and prevention of flea allergy dermatitis in dogs and cats. Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 83–98, June 2000. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3164.2000.00204.x
- Genchi C, Traldi PG, Bianciardi PP. Efficacy of imidacloprid on dogs and cats with natural infestations of fleas, with special emphasis on flea hypersensitivity. Vet Ther. 2000 Spring;1(2):71-80.
- Rust MK, Waggoner MM, Hinkle NC, Stansfield D, Barnett S. Efficacy and longevity of nitenpyram against adult cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J Med Entomol. 2003 Sep;40(5):678-81.
- Arther RG, Cunningham J, Dorn H, Everett R, Herr LG, Hopkins T. Efficacy of imidacloprid for removal and control of fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1997 Aug;58(8):848-50.
- Schulze M, Helber B, Hardt J, Ehret W. [Pyrethroid exposure following indoor treatments with a dog flea powder]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2002 Mar 22;127(12):616-8.
- Petr Fisara, Roger M Sargent, Michael Shipstone, Andrew von Berky, Janet von Berky. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia. Vet Dermatol. 2014 Jun; 25(3): 195–e49. Published online 2014 May 6. doi: 10.1111/vde.12132
- Dai Tan Vo, Walter H. Hsu, Richard J. Martin. Insect Nicotinic Receptor Agonists as Flea Adulticides in Small Animals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 Jul 29. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2010.01160.x
- Michael W Dryden, Patricia A Payne, Vicki Smith, Kathleen Heaney, Fangshi Sun. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence. Parasit Vectors. 2013; 6: 126. Published online 2013 May 3. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-126
- J.-F. Graf, R. Gogolewski, N. Leach-Bing, G. A. Sabatini, M. B. Molento, E. L. Bordin, G. J. Aranties. Tick control: an industry point of view. Parasitology, 129, pp S427-S442. doi:10.1017/S0031182004006079.
- Marchiondo AA, Holdsworth PA, Green P, Blagburn BL, Jacobs DE. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestation on dogs and cats. Vet Parasitol. 2007 Apr 30;145(3-4):332-44. Epub 2006 Nov 30.
- Beugnet F, Fourie J, Chalvet-Monfray K. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S)-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment. Parasite. 2012 May;19(2):153-8.
- Fourie JJ, Crafford D, Horak IG, Stanneck D. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested dogs with an imidacloprid / flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) to preempt infection with Dipylidium caninum. Parasitol Res. 2013 Aug;112 Suppl 1:33-46. doi: 10.1007/s00436-013-3279-5.
- Horak IG. The control of ticks, fleas and lice on dogs by means of a Sendran–impregnated collar. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1976 Mar;47(1):17-8.
- Dorothee Stanneck, Julia Rass, Isabel Radeloff, Eva Kruedewagen, Christophe Le Sueur, Klaus Hellmann, Klemens Krieger. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe. Parasit Vectors. 2012; 5: 66. Published online 2012 Mar 31. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-66
- Josephus J Fourie, Dionne Crafford, Ivan G Horak, Dorothee Stanneck. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum. Parasit Vectors. 2012; 5: 151. Published online 2012 Jul 27. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-151
- Marie-Christine Cadiergues, Charline Pressanti. Efficacy of Spinosad Tablets Administered to a Colony of 15 Indoor Cats Naturally Infested with Fleas. ISRN Vet Sci. 2014; 2014: 484308. Published online 2014 Feb 5. doi: 10.1155/2014/484308
- Wolken S, Franc M, Bouhsira E, Wiseman S, Hayes B, Schnitzler B, Jacobs DE. Evaluation of spinosad for the oral treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs in Europe. Vet Rec. 2012 Jan;170(4):99. doi: 10.1136/vr.100211. Epub 2011 Dec 2.
- Frédéric Beugnet, Christa deVos, Julian Liebenberg, Lénaïg Halos, Josephus Fourie. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs. Parasite. 2014; 21: 42. Published online 2014 Aug 25. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2014045
- Nadja Rohdich, Rainer KA Roepke, Eva Zschiesche. A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) against Frontline™ (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs. Parasit Vectors. 2014; 7: 83. Published online 2014 Mar 4. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-83
- Vanessa Turner, Cheryl Chaffey, Patricia Ferrao. A survey for small animal veterinarians regarding flea and tick control pesticide products. Can Vet J. 2011 Oct; 52(10): 1080–1082.
- Folz SD, Ash KA, Conder GA, Rector DL. Amitraz: a tick and flea repellent and tick detachment drug. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1986 Jun;9(2):150-6.
- Bizikova P, Moriello KA, Linder KE, Sauber L. Dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin pemphigus-like drug reaction in three dogs. Vet Dermatol. 2015 Jun;26(3):206-8, e45-6. doi: 10.1111/vde.12202. Epub 2015 Mar 10.
- Mount ME, Moller G, Cook J, Holstege DM, Richardson ER, Ardans A. Clinical illness associated with a commercial tick and flea product in dogs and cats. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1991 Feb;33(1):19-27.
- Genovese AG, McLean MK, Khan SA. Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2012 Aug;22(4):470-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00780.x. Epub 2012 Jul 16.
- Boy MG, Six RH, Thomas CA, Novotny MJ, Smothers CD, Rowan TG, Jernigan AD. Efficacy and safety of selamectin against fleas and heartworms in dogs and cats presented as veterinary patients in North America. Vet Parasitol. 2000 Aug 23;91(3-4):233-50.
- Tad B Coles, Michael W Dryden. Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats. Parasit Vectors. 2014; 7: 8. Published online 2014 Jan 6. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-8
- Baker NF, Farver TB. Failure of brewer’s yeast as a repellent to fleas on dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1983 Jul 15;183(2):212-4.